May 19, 1925(1925-05-19)North Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
February 21, 1965 (aged 39)New York, NY, U.S.
For the biographical movie of the same name, see Malcolm X (film).
"Malik Shabazz" redirects here. For other uses, see Malik Shabazz (disambiguation).
Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was an American Black Muslim minister and a spokesman for the Nation of Islam.
After leaving the Nation of Islam in 1964, he made the pilgrimage, the Hajj, to Mecca and became a Sunni Muslim. He also founded the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Less than a year later, he was assassinated in Washington Heights on the first day of National Brotherhood Week.
Historian Robin D.G. Kelley wrote, "Malcolm X has been called many things: Pan-Africanist, father of Black Power, religious fanatic, closet conservative, incipient socialist, and a menace to society. The meaning of his public life — his politics and ideology — is contested in part because his entire body of work consists of a few dozen speeches and a collaborative autobiography whose veracity is challenged.... Malcolm has become a sort of tabula rasa, or blank slate, on which people of different positions can write their own interpretations of his politics and legacy. Chuck D of the rap group Public Enemy and Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas can both declare Malcolm X their hero."
1 Early years
2 Young adult years
3 Nation of Islam
3.1 Marriage and family
3.2 Meeting Castro
4 Tensions and departure from the Nation of Islam
5 Pilgrimage to Mecca
6 International travel
6.2 France and the UK
7 Death and afterwards
7.3 Response to Malcolm's death
8 Conspiracy theories
9 Popular culture
10 See also
12 External links
12.1 Research sites
12.2 Articles and reports
13 Further reading
13.1 By Malcolm X